Menstrual cups, little-known devices used by women to manage their periods, are safe and as effective as sanitary pads and tampons, as well as less expensive, according to the first comprehensive analysis of the products. Many women have never heard of menstrual cups; some may know them only by brand names like Diva Cups or Moon Cups. They are flexible, bell-shaped devices made of silicone, rubber or latex that are inserted into the vagina to capture menstrual blood. The cups can be left in place for four to 12 hours before being emptied, rinsed and reinserted.
These are external links and will open in a new window. Women can be assured that menstrual cups are as leakproof as tampons and pads, say researchers who have carried out the first, large scientific review of sanitary products. Although they have been gaining in popularity, the review found awareness of menstrual cups among women was relatively low. The work, published in the Lancet Public Health journal, looked at 43 studies involving 3, women and girls living in rich and poor countries. Common concerns about trying a menstrual cup included pain and difficulty fitting or removing it, as well as leakage and chafing. Four studies, involving nearly women compared leakage between menstrual cups and disposable pads or tampons.
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Early life stress ELS is a potent developmental disruptor and increases the risk for psychopathology. Various forms of ELS have been studied in both humans and rodents, and have been implicated in altered DNA methylation, gene transcription, stress hormone levels, and behavior. Although recent studies have focused on stress-induced epigenetic changes, the extent to which ELS alters HPA axis function and stress responsivity across generations, whether these effects are sex-specific, and how lineage interacts with upbringing to impact these effects, remain unclear. To address these points, two generations of rodents were utilized, with the first generation subjected to ELS via maternal separation, and the second to a balanced cross-fostering paradigm. We hypothesized that ELS would disrupt normative development in both generations, manifesting as altered methylation and expression of genes associated with stress signaling pathways Nr3c1, Nr3c2, and Bdnf , blunted corticosterone CORT , and anxiety-like behaviors.